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An Escort Group consisted of several small warships organized and trained to operate together protecting trade convoys. Escort groups were a World War II tactical innovation in anti-submarine warfare by the Royal Navy to combat the threat of the Kriegsmarine ' s " wolfpack " tactics.
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Early escort groups often contained destroyerssloopsnaval trawlers and, later, corvettes of differing specifications lacking the ability to maneuver together as a flotilla of similar warships, but rigorously trained in anti-submarine tactics to use teamwork emphasizing the unique sensors, weapons, speed, and turning radius of each ship. The development of these 'escort groups' proved an escort means of defending shipping convoys through the Battle of the Atlantic.
These escorts were not numerous enough or sufficiently long-ranged to accompany convoys across the Atlantic, but would screen convoys to and from meeting points thought to be beyond U-boat range defining the edge of the Western Approaches. Convoy escorts were initially ased on an ad hoc basis, dispatched as and when available, and arrived singly or in small escorts.
Command of the escort force fell to the senior officer present and could change as each new ship arrived. Any tactical arrangements had to be made on the spot and communicated by a al lamp to each ship in turn. The ships were unaccustomed to working together and often had no escort battle plan or tactics. These deficiencies led to a major defeat in October when Convoy HX 79 from Halifax to Liverpool was attacked by a wolfpack of five U-boats remaining after an attack on convoy SC 7.
Initially unprotected, a force of 11 warships were assembled but 12 ships in the convoy were sunk from attacks during the night while none of the U-boats were damaged. In WAC had 8 escort groups formed.
By operating together escort a single leader, groups were able to develop group tactics and practice their use; with the issue of a single short command the various ships of the group, often out of sight of each other, could be relied upon to act in a coordinated fashion.
In ten days infour U-boats were sunk with the loss of three of Germany's top U-boat commanders.
The WATU was an RN analysis team founded in early to study the conduct of convoy operations using wargames and lectures. The unit, made up of naval officers and the young women of the WRNS disseminated instructions to over 5, Allied officers with "considerable success".
This level of teamwork was never achieved by the attacking U-boats. Although the wolfpack was co-ordinated in that several boats would be concentrated on a target convoy, once gathered the boats would attack individually without any attempt at further co-operation. It was not escort for U-boats to get in each other's way whilst attacking or collide with each other.
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Time and again during the Battle of the Atlantic relatively small, well-handled escort groups were able to frustrate attacks by more numerous groups of U-boats and ensure the "safe and timely arrival" of their escorts. Over the next three days they fought off attacks by the wolfpack for the loss of five ships and one corvette; 28 ships arrived safely.
In practice, escort group cohesion was impaired by frequent changes of escort personnel and transferring ships between groups. The ships of the earlier groups which had only a short-range and were unsuitable for MOEF duty were reased to the Western Local Escort Force or escort with coastal convoys or the arctic convoys supplying the Soviet Union.
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The 36th through 44th escort groups remained relatively unchanged escorting convoys between Liverpool and Gibraltar and Sierra Leone. The following escort groups had been formed prior to United States Navy escort participation in the autumn of .
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